Tag: Privacy

Introducing the Librem Key

A few months ago we announced that we were partnering with Nitrokey to produce a new security token: the Librem Key and I’m pleased to announce that today the Librem Key is available for purchase on our site for $59.

What is a USB Security Token?

In case you haven’t heard of USB security tokens before, they are devices typically about the size of a USB thumb drive that can act as “something you have” for multi-factor authentication. With so many attacks on password logins, most security experts these days recommend adding a second form of authentication (often referred to as “2FA” or “multi-factor authentication”) in addition to your password so that if your password gets compromised the attacker still has to compromise your second factor. USB security tokens work well as this second factor because they are “something you have” instead of “something you know” like a password is, and because they are portable enough you can just keep them in your pocket, purse, or keychain and use them only when you need to login to a secure site.

In addition to multi-factor authentication, security tokens can also often store your private GPG keys in a tamper-proof way so you can protect them from attackers who may compromise your laptop. With your private keys on the security token, you can just insert the key when you need to encrypt, decrypt, sign, or authenticate and then type in your PIN to unlock the key. Since your private keys stay on the security token, even if an attacker compromises your computer, they can’t copy your keys (and even if you leave the key plugged in, they need to know your PIN to use it).

Why Make a Librem Key?

There are many other vendors out there who offer their own security tokens, so why make our own? The first reason is that few security tokens out on the market align with our values here at Purism, in particular with respect to freedom. I’ve explained in a previous post why freedom is essential to security and privacy and this is especially true for a device that is holding some of your most sensitive secrets. We wanted a security token that used open hardware, free software firmware, and free software user applications and that is why we partnered with Nitrokey to produce a security token that respected your freedom from the beginning.

We also wanted to make the Librem Key because of all of the integration possibilities with our existing products that would make customers more secure in a way that’s also more convenient. When you can bundle a security token with your own laptop and operating system, there are so many interesting possibilities, especially when the firmware and user applications are free software so we can easily modify them to add even more features.

In addition to the standard features of a security token (GPG key storage and multi-factor authentication) that the Librem Key can perform on any computer, here are some of the interesting integration options with our Librem laptops we are already looking into with the Librem Key that will make security much more convenient for users who are facing average threats:

  • Insert the Librem Key at boot and automatically decrypt your hard drive
  • Automatically lock your laptop whenever you remove the Librem Key
  • Use your Librem Key to log in

Provable Security, Made Easy

One of the most exciting opportunities the Librem Key opens up to us is in integrating with our tamper-evident Heads BIOS to provide cutting-edge tamper-evident security but in a convenient package that doesn’t exist anywhere else.

Currently with Heads, when you want to prove that the BIOS hasn’t been tampered with, you need to set up a TOTP application on your phone and scan a QR code from within Heads. Then at each boot you compare the 6-digit code Heads displays on the screen with the code in your phone. If the codes match, the BIOS is safe. This method works but is a bit cumbersome and with the Librem Key we can do better.

We have worked with Nitrokey to add a custom feature to our Librem Key firmware specifically for Heads. This custom firmware along with a userspace application allows us to store the shared secret from the TPM on the Librem Key instead of on a phone app. Then when Heads boots, if the BIOS hasn’t been tampered with the TPM will unlock its copy of the shared secret, and Heads will send the 6-digit code over to the Librem Key. If the code matches what the Librem Key itself generated, it flashes a green light. If the codes don’t match, it flashes a red light.

So if you are concerned about someone tampering with your computer when you aren’t around, just boot with the Librem Key inserted. If it blinks green you are safe, if it blinks red you’ve been tampered with. There is no other product on the market today that offers this kind of simple but strong tamper-evident protection, much less one that respects your freedom where the keys are fully in your control.

Even Stronger Anti-Interdiction Protection

The Librem Key opens up possibilities for even stronger anti-interdiction protection for customers who need it. We will be able to link a Librem Key with a laptop running Heads at our facility and then ship them separately. Then when each package arrives you can immediately test for tampering with an easy “green is good, red is bad” test.

Convenient Security for the Enterprise

Many companies have already incorporated 3rd party security tokens into their engineering teams as a way for software engineers to sign their code pushes securely or as convenient multi-factor token. The Librem Key offers enterprises a way to combine all of the other features they are used to with other security tokens along with our cutting-edge tamper-evident boot process on our Librem laptops in an easy and convenient package where all of the keys are fully under their control.

Since the firmware and userspace tools are free software, that means enterprises can also easily customize these tools to suit their own internal policies whether with their own software teams or by working with Purism. That could mean anything from providing a customized error page to employees when Heads detects tampering to actively preventing employees from booting a tampered-with machine.

Only the Beginning

Knowing that our customers have a secure and freedom-respecting security token opens up all sorts of other possibilities and today we are only scratching the surface on what we will be able to do with Librem Key both for new customers and those that have been with us from the beginning. Stay tuned for future posts where I will dive deeper into some of the Librem Key’s features and explain how to get the most out of it. In the mean time you can order your own Librem Key from the Librem Key product page.

Update: read more in our follow-up post explaining the interaction between the Librem Key and our coreboot+Heads BIOS replacement to learn more about how the tamper detection works.

Purism launches Librem Key, the first and only security key to offer tamper evident protection to laptop users

New OpenPGP smart cards now available for purchase on Purism’s website

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif., September 20, 2018 — Purism, the social purpose corporation which designs and produces popular digital rights respecting hardware, software, and services, has launched its new security token, the Librem Key, which is the first and only OpenPGP smart card providing a Heads-firmware-integrated tamper-evident boot process. The new Librem Key, built with Open Hardware USB OpenPGP security tokens from Nitrokey, can store up to 4096-bit RSA keys and up to 512-bit ECC keys and can securely generate them directly on the device. Librem Keys are now available for purchase on Purism’s website, with Librem laptops or as a single order. Librem Keys will be able to provide basic security token functions on any laptop, but have extended features that work exclusively with Purism’s Librem laptop line and other devices that support Trammel Hudson’s Heads security firmware. Read more

Why Freedom is Essential to Security and Privacy

This post is based off of “Freedom, Security and Privacy” a keynote I gave at OpenWest 2018. You can see the full video of the talk here.

Freedom, security and privacy are interrelated. The relationship between these three concepts is more obvious in some cases than others, though. For instance, most people would recognize that privacy is an important part of freedom. In fact, studies have shown that being under surveillance changes your behavior such as one study that demonstrates that knowing you are under surveillance silences dissenting views. The link between privacy and security is also pretty strong, since often you rely on security (encryption, locked doors) to protect your privacy.

The link between freedom and security may be less obvious than the others. This is because security often relies on secrecy. You wouldn’t publish your password, safe combination or debit card PIN for the world to see, after all. Some people take the idea that security sometimes relies on secrecy to mean that secrecy automatically makes things more secure. They then extend that logic to hardware and software: if secret things are more secure, and proprietary hardware and software are secret, therefore proprietary hardware and software must be more secure than a free alternative.

The reality is that freedom, security and privacy are not just interrelated, they are interdependent. In this post I will analyze the link between these three concepts and in particular how freedom strengthens security and privacy with real world examples.

Do Many Eyes Make Security Bugs Shallow?

A core tenet of the Free Software movement is “many eyes make bugs shallow.” This statement refers to the fact that with proprietary software you have a limited amount of developers who are able to inspect the code. With Free Software, everyone is free to inspect the code and as a result you end up with more people (and more diverse people) looking at the code. These diverse eyes are more likely to find bugs than if the code were proprietary.

Some people extend this idea to say that many eyes also make security bugs shallow. To that I offer the following counterpoint: OpenSSL, Bash and Imagemagick. All three of these projects are examples where the code was available for everyone to inspect, but each project had critical security bugs hiding inside of the code for years before it was found. In particular in the case of Imagemagick, I’m all but certain that security researchers were motivated by the recent bugs in OpenSSL and Bash to look for bugs in other Free Software projects that were included in many embedded devices. Now before anyone in the proprietary software world gets too smug, I’d also like to offer a counter-counterpoint: Flash, Acrobat Reader and Internet Explorer. All three of these are from a similar vintage as the Free Software examples and all three are great examples of proprietary software projects that have a horrible security track record.

So what does this mean? For security bugs, it’s not sufficient for many eyes to look at code–security bugs need the right eyes looking at the code. Whether the researcher is fuzzing a black box, reverse engineering a binary, or looking directly at the source code, security researchers will find bugs if they look.

When Security Reduces Freedom

At Purism we not only develop hardware, we also develop the PureOS operating system that runs on our hardware. PureOS doesn’t have to run on Purism hardware, however, and we’ve heard from customers who use PureOS on other laptops and desktops. Because of this, we sometimes will test out PureOS on other hardware to see how it performs. One day, we decided to test out PureOS on a low-end lightweight notebook, yet when we went to launch the installer, we discovered that the notebook refused to boot it! It turns out that Secure Boot was preventing the PureOS installer from running.

What is Secure Boot and why is it problematic?

Secure Boot is a security feature added to UEFI systems that aims to protect systems from malware that might attack the boot loader and attempt to hide from the operating system (by infecting it while it boots). Secure Boot works by requiring that any code it runs at boot time be signed by a certificate from Microsoft or from vendors that Microsoft has certified. The assumption here is that an attacker would not be able to access the private keys from Microsoft or one of its approved vendors to be able to sign its own malicious code. Because of that, Secure Boot can prevent the attacker from running code at boot.

When Secure Boot was first announced, the Linux community got in quite an uproar over the idea that Microsoft would be able to block Linux distributions from booting on hardware. The counter-argument was that a user could also opt to disable Secure Boot in the UEFI settings at boot time and boot whatever they want. Some distributions like Red Hat and Ubuntu have taken the additional step of getting their boot code signed so you can install either of those distributions even with Secure Boot enabled.

Debian has not yet gotten their boot code signed for Secure Boot and since PureOS is based off of Debian, this also means it cannot boot when UEFI’s Secure Boot is enabled. You might ask what the big deal was since all we had to do is disable Secure Boot and install PureOS. Unfortunately, some low-cost hardware saves costs by loading a very limited UEFI configuration that doesn’t give you the full range of UEFI options such as changing Secure Boot. That particular laptop fell into this category so we couldn’t disable Secure Boot and as a result we couldn’t install our OS–we were limited to operating systems that partnered with Microsoft and its approved vendors.

Secure Booting: Now with Extra Freedom

It’s clear that protecting your boot code from tampering is a nice security feature, but is that possible without restricting your freedom to install any OS you want? Isn’t the only viable solution having a centralized vendor sign approved programs? It turns out that Free Software has provided a solution in the form of Heads, a program that runs within a Free Software BIOS to detect the same kind of tampering Secure Boot protects you from, only with keys that are fully under your control!

The way that Heads works is that it uses a special independent chip on your motherboard called the TPM to store measurements from the BIOS. When the system boots up, the BIOS sends measurements of itself to the TPM. If those measurements match the valid measurements you set up previously, it unlocks a secret that Heads uses to prove to you it hasn’t been tampered with. Once you feel confident that Heads is safe, you can tell it to boot your OS and Heads will then check all of the files in the /boot directory (the OS kernel and supporting boot files) to make sure they haven’t been tampered with. Heads uses your own GPG key signatures to validate these files and if it detects anything has been tampered with, it sends you a warning so you know not to trust the machine and not to type in any disk decryption keys or other secrets.

With Heads, you get the same kind of protection from tampering as Secure Boot, but you can choose to change both the TPM secrets and the GPG keys Heads uses at any time–everything is under your control. Plus since Heads is Free Software, you can customize and extend it to behave exactly as you want, which means an IT department could customize it to tell the user to turn the computer over to IT if Heads detects tampering.

When Security without Freedom Reduces Privacy

Security is often used to protect privacy, but without freedom, an attacker can more easily subvert security to exploit privacy. Since the end-user can’t easily inspect proprietary firmware, an attacker who can exploit that firmware can implant a backdoor that can go unseen for years. Here are two specific examples where the NSA took advantage of this so they could snoop on targets without their knowing.

  • NSA Backdoors in Cisco Products: Glenn Greenwald was one of the reporters who initially broke the Edward Snowden NSA story. In his memoir of those events, No Place to Hide, Greenwald describes a new NSA program where the NSA would intercept Cisco products that were shipping overseas, plant back doors in them, then repackage them with the factory seals. The goal was to use those back doors to snoop on otherwise protected network traffic going over that hardware. Update: Five new backdoors have been discovered in Cisco routers during the beginning of 2018, although whether they were intentional or accidental has not been determined.
  • NSA Backdoors in Juniper Products: Just in case you are on Team Juniper instead of Team Cisco, it turns out you weren’t excluded. The NSA is suspected in a back door found in Juniper firewall products within its ScreenOS that had been there since mid-2012. The backdoor allowed admin access to Juniper firewalls over SSH and also enabled the decryption of VPN sessions within the firewall–both very handy if you want to defeat the privacy of people using those products.

While I picked on network hardware in my examples, there are plenty of other examples outside of Cisco, Juniper, and the NSA where because of a disgruntled admin, a developer bug, or paid spyware, a backdoor or default credentials showed up inside proprietary firmware in a security product. The fact is, this is a difficult if not impossible problem to solve with proprietary software because there’s no way for an end user to verify that the software they get from their vendor matches the source code that was used to build it, much less actually audit that source code for back doors.

When Freedom Protects Security and Privacy

The Free Software movement is blazing the trail for secure and trustworthy software via the reproducible builds initiative. For the most part, people don’t install software directly from the source code but instead a vendor takes code from an upstream project, compiles it, and creates a binary file for you to use. In addition to a number of other benefits, using pre-compiled software saves the end user both the time and the space it would take to build software themselves. The problem is, an attacker could inject their own malicious code at the software vendor and even though the source code itself is Free Software, their malicious code could still hide inside the binary.

Reproducible builds attempt to answer the question: “does the binary I get from my vendor match the upstream source code that was used to build it?” This process uses the freely-available source code from a project to test for any tampering that could have happened between the source code repository, the vendor, and you making sure that a particular version of source code will generate the same exact output each time it is built, regardless of the system that builds it. That way, if you want to verify that a particular piece of software is safe, you can download the source code directly from the upstream developer, build it yourself, and once you have the binary you can compare your binary with the binary you got from your vendor. If both binaries match, the code is safe, if not, it could have been tampered with.

Debian is working to make all of its packages reproducible and software projects such as Arch, Fedora, Qubes, Heads, Tails, coreboot and many others are also working on their own implementations. This gives the end user an ability to detect tampering that would be impossible to detect with proprietary software since by definition there’s no way for you to download the source code and validate it yourself.

Freedom, Security and Privacy in Your Pocket

Another great example of the interplay between freedom, security and privacy can be found by comparing the two operating systems just about everyone carries around with them in their pockets: iOS and Android. Let’s rate the freedom, security and privacy of both of these products on a scale of 1 to 10.

In the case of iOS, it’s pretty safe to say that the general consensus puts iOS security near the top of the scale as it often stands up to government-level attacks. When it comes to privacy, we only really have Apple’s marketing and other public statements to go by, however because they don’t seem to directly profit off of user data (although apps still could), we can cut them a bit of a break. When it comes to freedom, however, clearly their walled garden approach to app development and their tight secrecy around their own code gives them a low rating so the end result is:

  • Security: 9
  • Privacy: 6
  • Freedom: 1

Now let’s look at Android. While I’m sure some Android fans might disagree, the general consensus among the security community seems to be that Android is not as secure as iOS so let’s put their security a bit lower. When it comes to freedom, if you dig far enough into Android you will find a gooey Linux center along with a number of other base components that Google is using from the Free Software community such that outside parties have been able to build their own stripped-down versions of Android from the source code. While you have the option to load applications outside of Google’s Play Store, most of the apps you will find there along with almost all of Google’s own apps are proprietary, so their freedom rating is a mixed-bag. When it comes to privacy though, I think it’s pretty safe to rate it very low, given the fundamental business model behind Android is to collect and sell user data.

  • Security: 7
  • Freedom: 5
  • Privacy: 1

Over the long run, the Librem line of products aims to address these concerns.

Why Not All Three?

To protect your own security and privacy, you need freedom and control. Without freedom, security and privacy require the full trust of vendors. However, vendors don’t always have your best interests at heart; in fact, in many cases vendors have a financial incentive to violate your interests, especially when it comes to privacy. The problem is, with proprietary software it can be difficult to prove a vendor is untrustworthy and if you do prove it, it’s even harder to revoke that trust.

With Free Software products, you have control of your trust. You also have the ability to verify that your Free Software vendors are trustworthy. With reproducible builds, you can download the source code and verify it all yourself.

In the end, freedom results in stronger security and privacy. These three concepts aren’t just interrelated, but they are interdependent. As you increase freedom, you increase security and privacy and when you decrease freedom, you put security and privacy at risk. This is why we design all of our products with freedom, security and privacy as strict requirements and continue to work toward increasing all three in everything we do.

Tamper-evident Boot Update: Making Heads More Usable

We announced not too long ago that we have successfully integrated the tamper-evident boot software Heads into our Librem laptops. Heads secures the boot process so that you can trust that the BIOS and the rest of the boot process hasn’t been tampered with, but with keys that are fully under your control.

Heads is cutting edge software and provides a level of security beyond what you would find in a regular computer. Up to this point though, its main user base are expert-level users who are willing to hardware flash their BIOS. The current user interface is also geared more toward those expert users with command-line scripts that make the assumption that you know a fair amount about how Heads works under the hood.

We want all our customers to benefit from the extra security in Heads so we intend to include it by default in all of our laptops in the future. For that to work though, Heads needs to be accessible for people of all experience levels. Most users don’t want to drop to a recovery shell with an odd error message so they can type some commands if they happen to update their BIOS, and they don’t want to be locked out of their system if they forgot to update their file signatures in /boot after a kernel update.

When we announced that we were partnering with Trammell Hudson to use Heads on our laptops, we didn’t just mean “thanks for the Free Software, see you later!” Instead, we are putting our own internal engineering efforts to the task of not just porting Heads to our hardware, but also improving it–and sharing those improvements upstream.

The Delicious GUI Center

The first of our improvements is focused on making the boot screen more accessible. We started by added whiptail (software that lets you display GUI menus in a console) to Heads so that we can display a boot menu that more closely resembles GRUB. We then duplicated the features of the existing Heads boot menu so that instead of this:

Heads booting on a Librem 13v2
Heads booting on a Librem 13v2

you now see this:

Initial Heads GUI Menu
Initial Heads GUI Menu

If you hit enter, you boot straight into your OS just like with GRUB, only behind the scenes Heads is checking all the files in /boot for tampering. If you hadn’t already configured a default boot option, instead of dumping you back to a main menu with no explanation or existing out to a shell, we decided to provide a GUI so you can decide what to do next:

No Default Boot Set
No Default Boot Set

If you decide to load a menu of boot options from the main menu or from this dialog, we also wrapped a GUI around the Heads boot menu that parses your GRUB config file:

Heads Boot Selection Menu
Heads Boot Selection Menu

In each of the most common workflows, we’ve replaced the console output with an easier-to-use menu that also provides a bit more explanation on what’s happening if something goes wrong. For the most part the average user will just verify the TOTP code and then hit Enter to boot their system so in that way it’s not much different from a standard GRUB boot screen. These extra menus come in only if the user ever needs to deviate from the default and select a different kernel, generate a new TOTP code, or do other maintenance within Heads.

What’s Next

We now have these GUI menus working well in our internal Heads prototypes and we’ve also pushed our changes upstream, where most of them have already been pulled into the Heads project. That said, having a GUI boot menu is only part of what you need to make tamper-evident boot usable. Now that the boot menu is in a good place, our next focus is on making the overall Heads bootstrap and update process, key management, and signature generation easy (if only we had a GPG expert to help us with smart card integration, that would sure make things easier). Keep an eye out for more updates along all these lines soon.

 

Purism Partners with Cryptography Pioneer Werner Koch to Create a New Encrypted Communication Standard for Security-Focused Devices

Koch’s GnuPG and Smartcard encryption innovations popularized by Edward Snowden to be implemented in Purism’s Librem 5 smartphone and Librem laptop devices.

SAN FRANCISCO, California — March 8th, 2018 — Purism, maker of security-focused laptops has announced today that they have joined forces with leading cryptography pioneer, Werner Koch, to integrate hardware encryption into the company’s Librem laptops and forthcoming Librem 5 phone. By manufacturing hardware with its own software and services, Purism will include cryptography by default pushing the industry forward with unprecedented protection for end-user devices. Read more

Purism Integrates Trammel Hudson’s Heads security firmware with Trusted Platform Module, giving full control and digital privacy to laptop users

Librem devices add tamper-evident features to further protect users from cybersecurity threats by offering users the full control that no mainstream computer manufacturer ever has before

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif., February 27, 2018 — Purism, maker of security-focused laptops has announced today that they have successfully tested integration of Trammel Hudson’s Heads security firmware into their Trusted Platform Module (TPM)-enabled coreboot-running Librem laptops. This integration allows Librem laptop users to freely inspect the code, build and install it (and customize it) themselves, and own control of the secure boot process as Heads uses the TPM on the system to provide tamper-evidence. Read more

Librem adds tamper-evident features, now most secure laptop under full customer control

Protecting customer privacy, security and freedom is so fundamental to Purism’s mission that we codified it in our Social Purpose Corporation charter. We believe that these three concepts of privacy, security, and freedom are not just important by themselves but are also dependent on each other. For example, it’s obvious that by improving your security, we help protect your privacy. What might be less obvious is how dependent your privacy is on your freedom. True privacy means your computer and data are under your control, not controlled by unethical big-tech corporations. When your digital life is under your control you have the freedom to share your data only when you want to. So as we consider ways to improve your security, it can’t be at the cost of privacy or freedom.

As part of our goal to improve security we are excited to announce that we have successfully integrated Heads into our TPM-enabled coreboot-running Librem laptops. This integration effort began in April 2017 with the partnership of Purism and Trammell Hudson’s Heads project, which required hardware design changes, coreboot modifications, and operating system updates to reach where we are with this announcement today. We now have a tamper-evident boot process starting with the BIOS all the way through verifying that the kernel, initrd, and boot configuration files haven’t been changed in any way. Soon Heads will be enabled by default on all our laptops and this critical piece combined with the rest of our security features will make Librem laptops the most secure laptop you can buy where you hold the keys.

In this post we will describe why Heads is such an integral part of our security and how it combines with the rest of our features to create a unique combination of security, privacy and freedom that don’t exist in any other laptop you can buy today.

Heads booting on a Librem 13v2 TPM
Heads booting on a Librem 13 with TPM

Why Tamper-Evident Software Matters

For your computer to be secure, you need to be able to trust that your software hasn’t been modified to run malicious code instead. This is one of many reasons why it’s so important that you can see the source code for all of the software on your system from your web browser to your hardware drivers to the kernel and up to your BIOS. We’ve gone to great lengths to choose hardware that can run with free software drivers, load our laptops with the FSF-endorsed PureOS, use coreboot as our Free/Libre and Open Source BIOS, and have neutralized and disabled the Intel Management Engine.

Unfortunately being able to see the source code isn’t enough. All of the software you run trusts the kernel, and the kernel trusts the BIOS. Without tamper-evident features that start the moment the computer turns on, an attacker can inject malicious code into your BIOS or kernel with no way to detect it. Once started, that malicious software could capture your encrypted disk or login passwords along with any other secrets or other personal information on your computer. By running tamper-evident software at boot, you get peace of mind that your system can be trusted before you start using it. With Purism’s combined approach the first bit loaded into the CPU is measured and signed by the user to prove nothing has been tampered with.

Heads Above the Rest

There are a number of different technologies we could have chosen to protect the boot process, but unfortunately very few of them are Free/Libre and Open Source and almost all of them work by taking control away from you and putting it into a vendor that owns the keys that determine what software you can run at boot. We have witnessed first-hand unethical laptops that ship with “Secure Boot” enabled (a technology that only allows software signed with pre-approved (e.g. paid-for) corporate controlled keys to run at boot). The very limited BIOS on this machine offered no way to disable Secure Boot so it is impossible to install Debian, PureOS or any other distribution that hadn’t gotten the BIOS vendor and Microsoft’s (paid) approval.

Heads has a lot of advantages over all of the other boot verification technologies that make it perfect for Librem laptops. First, it is Free Software that works with the Open Source coreboot BIOS so you don’t have to take our word for it that it is backdoor-free–anybody is free to inspect the code and build and install it (and customize it) themselves.

Second, the way it uses the TPM on your system to provide tamper-evidence puts the keys under your control, not ours. The fact that you retain control over the keys that secure your system is incredibly important. While we intend to make the secure boot process painless, we also don’t think you should have to trust us for it to work–you can change your keys any time.

Enterprise Level Security, Easily

If you manage a fleet of machines, this means with Purism Librem laptops that include TPM and Heads, you now have the ideal platform that you can tailor for your specific enterprise needs with custom features and your own trusted company keys. You can provide a trusted boot environment that protects your users from persistent malware and detects tampering while they travel, while still integrating with your custom in-house laptop images. And you can do this without having to ask us to sign your software.

The IT Security department’s dream of self-signed, tamper-evident, persistent-malware-detecting, laptop computer is now a reality with Purism Librem laptops.

Part of a Bigger Story

Having a secure boot process is the foundation of security on a modern laptop but it’s only part of the reason why Librem laptops are so secure. Here we will review some of the other security features that when combined with Heads puts Librem laptops in a totally different league.

Snitches get Switches

One of the first security features that set us apart was our hardware kill switches. Unlike a software switch that asks the hardware to turn off politely and hopes it listens, our hardware kill switches sever the circuit at the hardware level. This means you don’t have to worry about Remote Access Trojan malware that can disable your webcam LED to spy on you more easily. When you hit the radio kill switch, your WiFi is completely off, and when you hit the webcam/mic kill switch, the webcam is truly powered off–no webcam stickers needed.

 

Extra Security with Qubes

Our laptops default to PureOS because we feel it provides the best overall desktop experience for every type of user while still protecting your privacy, security and freedom. For customers who want an even higher level of security, Qubes uses virtualization features to provide extra security through compartmentalization. In 2015, our Librem 13 (version 1) was the first (and currently only) hardware to have received Qubes certification. Our current line of laptops remains compatible, and we recently announced that our current generation of Librem 13 and 15 laptops now fully work with Qubes 4.0.

We are also investigating ways to incorporate some of the compartmentalization features of Qubes into PureOS so you can still have good security but with an easier learning curve. Disposable web browsers and protected USB ports are just some of the features we are considering.

We Won’t Stop There

When you combine tamper-evident secure booting with Heads, an Open Source coreboot BIOS, a neutered and disabled Intel Management Engine, hardware kill switches, and the advanced security features of Qubes, Librem laptops have a security advantage over any other laptop you can buy. Equally important, they have extra security without sacrificing your privacy, freedom, or control. While we are excited to hit this major milestone, and can’t wait to have Heads on by default for all our laptops, we aren’t stopping there.

A secured boot process opens the possibility for even stronger tamper-evidence that extends further into the file system. From there you can move past tamper-evidence into tamper-resistance or even tamper-proofing in some advanced applications. We are also investigating better ways to incorporate hardware tokens with our products to provide more convenient authentication and encryption while still leaving the keys in your hands.

Ultimately, our goal is to provide you with the most secure computer you can buy that protects your privacy while also respecting your freedom. Since these values are inter-dependent, each milestone that improves one ultimately strengthens them all, and we will continue to work to raise the bar on all of them.

Dark Caracal: State-Sponsored Spyware for Rent

Spyware has long been a privacy and security risk for personal computers and has been used by a number of groups—ranging from creeps who spy on and blackmail people through Remote Access Trojans, to marketers who want ever more data about you for targeted ads (such as through the Superfish malware we’ve seen preinstalled on some “big brands” computers), to government intelligence agencies.

The Register recently reported on an investigation by the EFF and Lookout into the “Dark Caracal” spyware network. According to the EFF, this spyware has already captured hundreds of gigabytes of data. More troubling, this spyware network is being rented out to nation states that may not be able to develop this capability in-house. Who knew government spies had their own international app store?

The Dark Caracal toolkit contains malware that targets Windows and Android platforms. In particular, Lookout discovered that Dark Caracal uses a particular piece of Android malware called Pallas that disguises itself as a legitimate Signal or WhatsApp app and tricks the unsuspecting user into installing it. Instead of relying on a rootkit, it just uses the fact that chat apps usually have access to a wide variety of permissions on your phone, so most people don’t question all the permissions the malware wants. Once installed, it uses those permissions to get audio, text messages, files, and other data via completely legitimate means and uses the network connection to send it back to the attacker.

Purism, Post-Its and Personal Privacy

Dark Caracal relies on Windows and Android malware, so you might wonder why I’m writing about it at Purism given not only is our Librem 5 phone not out yet, but PureOS is a completely different platform and isn’t vulnerable to this spyware toolkit. What makes spyware like this relevant is that we have focused on protecting customer privacy from the beginning (it’s even part of our corporate charter). Stories like this give us an opportunity to audit the privacy and security protections we put in our products to see how they’d fare if we had been a target.

By performing a tabletop thought exercise against spyware in the wild even if we aren’t vulnerable ourselves, we can rate the protections we have in place against a real-world attack and proactively harden things further based on any gaps we might find. It’s always easier if you start with security as a focus from the beginning instead of tacking it on at the end, so this exercise is not just useful for our existing Librem laptops but is particularly helpful as we develop the Librem 5.

Software Delivery

The first thing to examine is the software delivery mechanism. Malicious lookalike applications are a constant problem in mobile app stores, even more so if you add third party stores into the mix. One advantage GNU/Linux distributions have long had against other operating systems is that all of a particular distribution’s applications come from its own official repository and are signed by its developers. It’s much more difficult for a malicious application to end up in the official repository and pass the signature check, so when you use your distribution’s tool to install LibreOffice, you can be assured you are getting the real thing.

We get an additional advantage due to our dedication to Free Software. Like with other GNU/Linux distributions, all applications in PureOS come from a central PureOS repository and are signed with official PureOS keys. Unlike many GNU/Linux distributions, PureOS is a FSF-endorsed distribution so all of the software in PureOS must be Free Software. PureOS doesn’t include packages that download proprietary codecs, unsigned Flash plugins or any other binary-only code from elsewhere on the Internet. This means you can examine the source for every package in PureOS to check for malware or backdoors.

This is why it’s important to be extra careful when adding third-party repositories or installing software with curl | sh because you bypass trusted code signing and lose many of the protections built into a GNU/Linux distribution’s native packages. Fortunately, because PureOS is derived in part from Debian, it can take advantage of the vast number of packages available in Debian’s free repository, so you are much less likely to need to install software from a third party.

Hardware Privacy Protections

For most vendors you would focus only on software protections against spying because that’s your only option. Fortunately we can go one step further because we also build privacy protections into the hardware itself in the form of kill switches. Purism devices include hardware switches that allow you to cut power to radio hardware (WiFi) and to the webcam and microphone. Unlike a software hot key, these hardware switches disconnect power from the hardware so it can’t be bypassed by malicious software. Dark Caracal attacked both desktops and phones and so we should consider what effect our hardware privacy features would have on the spyware in both cases.

Desktop Protections

On a traditional laptop infected with Dark Caracal, the attacker would be able to stream video from the webcam. Depending on the sophistication of the spyware, it could possibly capture video with the LED light off, a phenomenon that has been demonstrated multiple times in recent years. Even if the victim added the high-tech spying countermeasure of covering the webcam with tape, the attacker could still capture audio off of the microphone and stream it along with the rest of the data over the WiFi connection.

On Librem laptops, the radio kill switch disables WiFi and the webcam/mic kill switch—you guessed it—disables the webcam and microphone together. We recommend users take advantage of the kill switches, in particular the webcam/mic switch, to disable the hardware when you aren’t using it. With the webcam/mic kill switch, even if spyware found its way on your machine, the attacker wouldn’t be able to capture any video or audio from the machine as long as the switch was off.

Customers especially concerned about their privacy or in a high-risk environment could take the additional precaution of using the radio kill switch to keep WiFi powered off and only turning it on briefly when they needed a network connection. In that case the attacker would have to wait until a network connection showed up and use that limited window to upload the data.

Phone Protections

Like with the Librem laptops, the Librem 5 phone will have kill switches, but as you’ll see, they impact a phone’s privacy even more dramatically than on a laptop. For example, the webcam/mic kill switch will protect you in much the same way as in a laptop, but unlike with a laptop, it gives you spyware protection you just wouldn’t have with a traditional phone because most phones just don’t have a good way to disable the microphone (in fact they rely on it being always on for voice commands). While you could tape over the camera like in a laptop, almost no one does. With a kill switch, you can leave your camera and mic off and conveniently turn it on when you need to take a selfie or make a call.

The radio kill switch would protect you in a similar way as on a laptop, but the Librem 5 also has an additional baseband kill switch. This switch powers off the cellular radio completely, not using software like in traditional airplane mode but using hardware so you know for sure it’s off. With the baseband off, you also prevent spyware from using your cellular beacon to track your location or your cellular network to send out your personal data and rack up a large cellphone bill.

Conclusion

It’s hard to add security and privacy protections after the fact—even harder if your company relies on customer data for its revenue. Because we value customer privacy, we continually work to increase privacy protections in our products not just in a reactive way based on a specific threat but in a proactive and general-purpose way that applies to all kinds of threats. Even though Purism products weren’t vulnerable to Dark Caracal, you can see how some of the additional protections we put in place would help keep you safer even if they were.

While this government-sponsored spyware was interesting because of its scope and because it was rented out to other governments, spyware like it is sadly not unique. Everyone from governments to tech companies to hackers to creepy stalkers all want a piece of your personal data and they all use different kinds of spyware to get it. Some of the greatest minds in our generation are focused on the problem of how to capture and store more and more of your data. At Purism we recognize that this data is your data, and we work every day to protect it.

Purism Attends Chaos Communication Congress

Chaos Computer Club hosts the CCC

We are attending the Chaos Communication Congress between December 27th – 30th in Leipzig, Germany. This is one of the largest gatherings of people who are interested in computer security, cryptography, privacy, and free speech in the world.

Two of our staff will be attending the event. Youness Alaoui and Zlatan Todoric hope to connect with those going or who are interested in learning more about the Congress. Please contact them on #Purism IRC channel on Freenode. Zlatan’s handle is zlatan, and Youness’ handle is KaKaRoTo.

They can’t wait to meet you at the Chaos Communication Congress!

Purism Librem Laptops Completely Disable Intel’s Management Engine

SAN FRANCISCO, Calif., October 19, 2017 — Purism’s Librem Laptops, running coreboot, are now available with the Intel Management Engine completely and verifiably disabled.

“Disabling the Management Engine, long believed to be impossible, is now possible and available in all current Librem laptops, it is also available as a software update for previously shipped recent Librem laptops.” says Todd Weaver, Founder & CEO of Purism.

The Management Engine (ME), part of Intel AMT, is a separate CPU that can run and control a computer even when powered off. The ME has been the bane of the security market since 2008 on all Intel based CPUs, with publicly released exploits against it, is now disabled by default on all Purism Librem laptops.

Disabling the Management Engine is no easy task, and it has taken security researchers years to find a way to properly and verifiably disable it. Purism, because it runs coreboot and maintains its own BIOS firmware update process has been able to release and ship coreboot that disables the Management Engine from running, directly halting the ME CPU without the ability of recovery.

“Purism Librem laptops were already the most secure current Intel based computers available on the market today, but disabling the management engine solidifies that statement clearly.” says Zlatan Todoric, CTO of Purism.

The Librem 13 and Librem 15 products can be purchased today and will arrive with the Management Engine disabled by default, and it can be verified to be disabled with the source code released to confirm the disablement is accurate. Showing “ME: FW Partition Table : BAD; ME: Bringup Loader Failure : YES”

“Purism, in the long-term pursuit of liberating hardware at the lowest levels, still has more work to do. Removing the management engine entirely is the next step beyond just disabling it. Coreboot also includes another binary, the Intel FSP, a less worrisome but still important binary to liberate, incorporating a free vBIOS is another step Purism plans to take. The road to a completely free system on current Intel CPUs is not over, but the largest step of disabling the Management Engine is arguably the largest milestone to cross.” says Youness Alaoui, Hardware Enablement Developer at Purism.

See also: our technical write-up on disabling the Management Engine on Purism laptops.


About Purism

Purism is a Social Purpose Corporation devoted to bringing security, privacy, software freedom, and digital independence to everyone’s personal computing experience. With operations based in San Francisco (California) and around the world, Purism manufactures premium-quality laptops and phones, creating beautiful and powerful devices meant to protect users’ digital lives without requiring a compromise on ease of use. Purism designs and assembles its hardware by carefully selecting internationally sourced components to be privacy-respecting and fully Free-Software-compliant. Security and privacy-centric features come built-in with every product Purism makes, making security and privacy the simpler, logical choice for individuals and businesses.

Media Contact

Marie Williams, Coderella / Purism
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See also the Purism press room for additional tools and announcements.